Whatever intentions Kikutake had for designing Tōkōen as a prototype for open-ended, metabolically adaptable building systems, the building now faces the same problem of persisting for the enjoyment of future generations that all buildings of that era must confront. archINFORM-Homepage von Kiyonori Kikutake (*1928 †2011) – Japanischer Architekt [mit Projektliste] Hotel Tōkōen, garden facade (top), entry facade (middle), lobby (bottom), 2014. This presentation exposed the fledgling Metabolist movement to its first international audience. 1 Though frequently referred to as a manifesto, the pamphlet was in fact a collection of essays and urban design projects by architectural critic Kawazoe Noboru and four young architects then launching their practices: Kiyonori Kikutake, Kishō Kurokawa, Fumihiko Maki, and Masato Ōtaka. Though arguably the media-savvy Kurokawa scored the movement’s greatest hit with the construction of his 1972 Nakagin Capsule Tower, 4 it was Kikutake whose more than fifty-year career most profoundly and persistently explored Metabolism’s central polemic on the lifespan of buildings and their systems. The contrast of scales — on the one hand, a continuous fabric of low-ceilinged, wood- and plaster-paneled domestic interiors, and on the other, the emphatic presence of a megastructural column group — proves very effective in shaping the visitor’s experience of the hotel as an orchestration of several distinct systems. At the same time, built works were never mere prototypes or representations of grander ambitions; they elicited from Kikutake a unique set of poetically conceived details in response to the particular place and use. The World as an Architectural Project shows how for more than a century architects have imagined the future of the planet through world-scale projects. At the point of the ribs’ attachment to the ridge beams, a secondary set of precast slab and cantilever beam elements are joined to the assembly, creating a delicate outrigger beam to cap the east and west facades. The notion that structural geometries and configurations could be tested at room and building scale, then translated to city scale, is a continuous thread running through Kikutake’s work. This is one of the first projects undertaken by architect Kiyonori Kikutake (1928-2011), one of the founders of the movement Metabolist Japan.After graduating from Waseda University in 1950 Kikutake completed two housing projects and a cultural center. PROJECT DETAILS PROJECT DETAILS. This was as true for his first small-scale built works as for the large-scale futuristic urban visions. With the criticism on their unreality, his projects have been often treated like sci-fi comics. 8 Concrete moment frame construction was by far the most common structural paradigm, but folded plate and shell structures were also in wide use, enabling large, column-free interiors for auditoriums, factories, transit hubs, and other gathering places. Kikutake’s response was to propose a simple, elongated structure — 10.5 by 42 meters in plan — parallel to the road. Following the 1959 disbandment of the Congrès Internationaux d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM), which was founded by Le Corbusierin 1928 together with other Europeans, metabolism architecture filled the void that was left. Architects imagine the planet: fifty speculative world-scale projects from Patrick Geddes, Alison and Peter Smithson, Kiyonori Kikutake, Juan Navarro Baldeweg, Luc Deleu, and others. The double-height glazed lobby pushes out toward the garden, incorporating the east facade’s central column group as a sculptural feature. Tōkōen is situated on the Japan Sea coast of Tottori Prefecture, approximately seventy-five kilometers east of Izumo, in the hot-springs resort town of Yonago. Reinforced concrete therefore was the default choice and central focus of technological experimentation. The Marine City projects by Kiyonori Kikutake designed between 1958 and 1963 are the first and most influential proposals to build ‘Megastructures’ into the sea after the dissolution of C.I.A.M.They include two basic types: the ‘Floating Structure’ as a concentric and city-scale type, and the ‘Linear Ocean City’ as a linear and national-scale type. The hotel has by no means been declared structurally unsafe, but its current condition raises questions about its ability to be adequately maintained. Kiyonori Kikutake studierte an der japanischen Waseda-Universität und promovierte 1950 im Steel was also used, though in the aftermath of the industry’s wartime devastation, steel frame construction was relatively expensive, and the material was usually assigned a specific role (e.g., as lightweight, long-spanning roof structure) within an otherwise concrete structure. He also taught several important Japanese architects, such as Toyo Ito, Shōzō Uchii and Itsuko Hasegawa In an earlier, smaller project, Kikutake and Matsui had experimented with suspension-based lift-slab technology, but Tōkōen brought this to a new and daring scale. Surprisingly, the familiar view of the sixty-two-meter-long east facade had been cut off by the recent addition of a new (and ironically, much larger) wooden structure nearly abutting the northern third. Good quality wood for construction, depleted during wartime, was still in short supply. A preference for expressing autonomous parts at the expense of cohesive wholes is seen in other works as well. To further exaggerate the sensation of floating in a structure-free zone, the architect proposed suspending the top two floors of guest rooms from a pair of cantilevering girders (visible on the exterior but unseen from within), using high-strength steel rods. Each member is precisely shaped and finished in a way that recalls the wood joinery of traditional carpenters. Through 1970, they developed ideas for individual homes, apartment buildings, ... Kiyonori Kikutake's own home, Sky House. In the case of corner rooms, there is a double-cantilever, its transparency expressing the lightness Kikutake sought. Kiyonori Kikutake: Toku'un-ji Temple Ossuary, 1965 D –1965. As was the case with Izumo, published photographs of the hotel and knowledge of its innovative structural systems had created the illusion that Tōkōen was a far larger building than it seems in person. Though spanning nearly forty meters without intermediate support, the concrete beams are only two meters deep — a remarkable 1:20 depth-to-span ratio not ordinarily achievable in conventional concrete. Japanese architect Kiyonori Kikutake’s Sky House (1958) remains an exemplary project that defines the Metabolist agenda but, more significantly, underscores the notion that a single-family dwelling can be ideologically recursive and strategic. 12 Following a narrative that paralleled his theory of metabolic urban growth, the architect set out to design a robust eight-story structure that could flexibly accommodate future additions and renovations. Kiyonori Kikutake, Sky House, Tokyo, 1958. The project still stands out as a … The world's growing vulnerability to planet-sized risks invites action on a global scale. Ka, Kata, Katachi: esencia, substancia, fenómeno. Matsui’s design allowed the floor slab edges to taper to a mere 120 millimeters, in keeping with the desire for a light expression. But Kikutake had other, larger concerns: chiefly, the problem of connecting contemporary construction to traditional shrine culture in a meaningful way. The Izumo Grand Shrine Administration Building’s slender horizontal precast concrete louvers —with the delicate glazing strips inserted between them — are the most impressive aspects of the construction. Shinto has long been associated with acts of building; Shinto priests perform rituals and ceremonies to mark the completion of certain stages of construction, even on contemporary high-rise structures. Thus Kikutake’s challenge — and ultimate source of inspiration — was not only to produce a handsome building but also to devise a construction process that resonated with his clients’ familiarity with wood construction at every stage. The best among them — which include many works beyond those analyzed here — contain experiential riches that can only be fully appreciated in person. The concrete formwork has been carefully considered, using cedar boards to imprint wood grain permanently into the concrete surface and imbuing the whole with a sense of fine craftsmanship. Nearly floor-to-ceiling glass enclosure in fifth- and sixth-floor guest rooms completed the illusion of a floating structure. Kiyonuri Kikutake (jap. Though scientifically precise and requiring collaboration with top engineers, these investigations have been inspired more by the desire to produce particular kinds of spatial experience than by quantifiable (but one-dimensional) measures of progress such as efficiency and economy. Marine City Megastructure / Kiyonori Kikutake May 8, 2020 The Marine City projects by Kiyonori Kikutake designed between 1958 and 1963 are the first and most influential proposals to build ‘Megastructures’ into the sea after the dissolution of C.I.A.M…. Architects imagine the planet: fifty speculative world-scale projects from Patrick Geddes, Alison and Peter Smithson, Kiyonori Kikutake, Juan Navarro Baldeweg, Luc Deleu, and others. I visited the Izumo Grand Shrine in April 2013 — fifty years after Kikutake’s concrete structure was completed, and little more than a year after the architect’s death. Certainly it is a great work of architecture: nowhere are Kikutake’s powers of imagination more evident than here in his synthesis of symbolic, technological, and spatial-experiential facets into a unique work. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Projekte… Close to, though not bordering, the seacoast, it enjoys gorgous views and fresh sea air. New opaque walls and built-in furniture on both ends of the main double-height space had compromised the sense of transparency Kikutake achieved, not to mention the legibility of his remarkable long-span structure. A review of Paul Rudolph’s collected essays, and an exploration of the architect’s volatile reputation. Itō, Itsuko Hasegawa, Kazuyo Sejima, and Ryūe Nishizawa to Jun’ya Ishigami, Sōsuke Fujimoto and beyond — has produced a bounty of innovative structural and architectural expressions. See more ideas about japanese architect, architecture, house tokyo. If you would like to comment on this article, or anything else on Places Journal, visit our Facebook page or send us a message on Twitter. Though the structure must be built twice (first steel, then concrete), the process usually take no longer than conventional concrete frame construction, since the steel frame can be quickly erected in any weather, and its presence greatly assists the logistics of assembling temporary formwork and shoring for the concrete construction. Today he is largely unknown. The group included architects Kiyonori Kikutake, Kisho Kurokawa, Masato Otaka, and Fumihiko Maki, and critic Noboru Kawazoe. But the gesture of lifting structures off the ground is so frequently seen in Kikutake’s work — from the 1958 Sky House through to the 1994 Edo-Tokyo Museum and beyond — as to raise questions about the persistence of such a singular attitude, without regard to client or program. The Metabolist theory of obsolescence and renewal notwithstanding, one does hope that that the early built works of Kiyonori Kikutake will be appreciated and maintained for many years to come. Tange presented two of architect Kiyonori Kikutake's theoretical projects exposing the fledgling metabolist movement for the first time to an international audience. In postwar Europe, avant-garde groups such as Archigram had already theorized the plug-in, or replaceable-part, consumerist city; but no attempts had yet been made to implement architectural projects to test these ideas. The pamphlet’s modest production values did nothing to detract from the potency of this message in the mid-20th-century context of rapid urbanization and mass production. As such, they were an integral part of his larger schemes for Japan’s urbanization. In other parts of the design, Kikutake experimented with similar structural and spatial daring: the ethereal “truss-stair” protruding from the garden facade is a fine example of minimally dimensioned, finely crafted concrete (attentive guests may note that the stair enfolds itself around one of the six grouped columns). [Mark Mulligan]. Extending his ideas about flexible interior space, Kikutake saw the presence of conventional structural elements within the guest rooms as incompatible with his mandate to establish an intimate connection to landscape, and so — as he had already done at Sky House and other smaller-scale precedents — the hotel’s primary concrete frame structure was banished to the exterior. He advocated beginning a design not with a preconceived program — a list of rooms — but with questions about how one relates to, and lives among, one’s surroundings. The architect sited the new main wing on a north-south axis, orienting the primary lobby and guest-room views eastward toward Tōkōen’s garden and bath structures, rather than northward to the seacoast. 11 The abstract figure of an elongated ridge beam and its end-supports would be the basis of Kikutake’s new construction system — elaborated, with Matsui’s support, as follows. 菊竹清訓先生のご冥福をお祈りいたします。. In the postwar decades, young Japanese architects confronted the challenge of rebuilding the devastated nation. Model of Aquapolis, another example of a floating structure designed by Kiyonori Kikutake. The world's growing vulnerability to planet-sized risks invites action on a global scale. From the outset, Kikutake understood his building as part of a larger ensemble, and he reasoned that the overall composition would continue to change to meet the demands of future owners and their clientele. societal benefits of architectural preservation, Lina Bo Bardi and the Architecture of Everyday Culture, Regionalism Revisited: The Case of Francisco Artigas, Marcel Breuer and the Invention of Heavy Lightness. None has attracted more intense critical focus today than the group’s intellectual leader and core instigator, Kiyonori Kikutake. much more than an architecture competition for students. The world's growing vulnerability to planet-sized risks invites action on a global scale. For the hotel interiors, the detailing talents of the architect’s staff (including a young intern, Toyô  Itō) were supplemented by Kiyoshi Awazu’s expert graphic design and artwork by Ryōkichi Mukai. A founding member of the Metabolist movement, Kikutake laid the foundation for an architecture able to intrinsically... Sky House - Tokyo By Kikutake Architects Published in Abitare 500 - March 2010 - The Hous... original vintage design furniture www.b22design.nl. Located in Shimane Prefecture on the coast of the Japan Sea, in a remote corner of western Honshū, the shrine is closely associated with Shinto’s folk traditions, inherently inward-looking and conservative. No project was too large or too small for the Metabolists. Though pre- and post-stressing techniques were originally developed for bridge building, their ability to reduce the number of columns within otherwise conventional buildings soon made them popular among the Metabolist generation — and the translation of such construction techniques from an infrastructural to an architectural (or human-centered) scale elicited some of the most provocative design expressions of the day. See more ideas about Metabolist architecture, Architecture, Metabolist. Kikutake, however, was not without a somewhat unlikely precedent in the renowned Le Corbusier. Read more at placesjournal.org. Kiyonori Kikutake studierte an der japanischen Waseda-Universität und promovierte 1950 im Fach Architektur. Kiyonori Kikutake's Marine City . Feb 21, 2017 - Explore Anna Gogoladze's board "KIYONORI KIKUTAKE" on Pinterest. Founded in 2006, World Architecture Community provides a unique environment for architects, academics and Half a century after he built his Sky House, Kikutake and Metabolism—the movement he instigated—both enjoy renewed attention. The imposing scale of the four-story-tall grouped columns, exposed on the western entrance facade, is mediated by the addition of smaller, free-standing entrance canopy structures in the same language of post-and-beam, cedar-board-textured concrete. Though frequently referred to as a manifesto, the pamphlet was in fact a collection of essays and urban design projects by architectural critic Kawazoe Noboru and four young architects then launching their practices: Kiyonori Kikutake, Kishō Kurokawa, Fumihiko Maki, and Masato Ōtaka. The current approach to repairing damaged concrete appears to be ad hoc, patching concrete and installing new ceiling plenums to cover and protect as needed. The tensile rods are finally encased within interior furnishings and hence cannot be detected as “structure” by guests. Japanese architect Kiyonori Kikutake’s Sky House (1958) remains an exemplary project that defines the Metabolist agenda but, more significantly, underscores the notion that a single-family dwelling can be ideologically recursive and strategic. This is a critical distinction to make in understanding how Kikutake managed to create such a diaphanous wall of concrete louvers. The louvers are continuously gradated in size from bottom to top, so that more light pours in above. Earlier I described Kikutake’s ability to work into the design of Tōkōen a number of seemingly unrelated structural experiments; in his account of the hotel’s design evolution, project architect Shōkan Endō writes that the penthouse’s shell roof was added as a refinement (and separate design task) only after the project had already gone out to bid. Kikutake Kiyonori und die „Marine Cities“ Abb. He was also the tutor and employer of several important Japanese architects, … Though windowless and structurally reliant on the continuity of their shear walls, the towers are articulated not as monolithic volumes but as column-and-beam moment frames with decorative precast panel infill. 9 Inspired by Le Corbusier’s expressively formed béton brut work in France and India, Japanese architects began experimenting not only with concrete’s remarkable sculptural and structural capabilities (including excellent seismic resistance) but also its surface qualities, which could take on a handcrafted appearance. Kikutake’s final design for the grouped columns resonates beautifully with the wooden architecture that inspired it. I raise these doubts not to pursue tautological questions but rather to suggest how Kikutake was able to develop a research-based architectural practice that (more than) supported itself with real building commissions while developing in parallel a capacity to work at new and challenging scales in the future. It features a modest interior program of offices, meeting rooms, and a double-height space originally used for displaying shrine treasures that required enclosure (currently serving as a reception area). You are reading an article printed from Places, the journal of public scholarship on architecture, landscape, and urbanism. 菊竹清訓; * 1. Because of the concentration of heavy structural loads on only two relatively distant points, Matsui needed to specify massive footings below each stair tower; in turn, due to poor soil conditions, each footing required deep caisson foundations to resist uneven settlement. Introduction undefined This is one of the first projects undertaken by architect Kiyonori Kikutake (1928-2011), one of the founders of the movement Metabolist Japan. Ōtaka’s extensive post-Metabolism design career has so far eluded critical discussion in an international arena. The most challenging part of the structural design concerned the suspended upper floors — which were critical to the theme of the project. No doubt the special atmosphere of postwar Japan was a factor. a look at the legacy left by the japanese architect who was the key player in the metabolism movement of the 1960's. You can change your preferences at any time. As is often the case with mid-century buildings, the interior had been significantly altered. The construction of Tōkōen required only twelve months between October 1963 and October 1964, which seems miraculous given the complex coordination of trades and new techniques required of its contractor, Kumagaya Corporation. Particularly important retrospective studies of the Metabolist movement include the Mori Art Museum’s 2011 exhibition and associated catalogue. Considerations on the Theme of Marine Architectures in the Early Projects of Masato Otaka, Kiyonori Kikutake and Noriaki Kisho Kurokawa April 2009 DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3818.9602 Architects were embracing reinforced concrete as a material that would not only prove more durable but also, in the right hands, could replicate many of wood’s structural, figural, and textural qualities. Stories about the design and architecture of Kikutake Kiyonori projects from around the world. Particularly noteworthy in relation to the overall spatial-structural concept are the corollary decisions to provide an open-air terrace at the fourth-floor level and to locate an entire floor of closed storage rooms on the seventh floor. To ensure the accuracy and straightness of the final structure, it was necessary during the construction to pre-stress the tensile members using hydraulic jacks until the concrete had reached final strength and its temporary supports could be removed. Kiyonori Kikutake, Water Cities Project RP FLIP (FLoating Instrument Platform) The main reference of the technological flip structure is the RP FLIP(FLoating Instrument Platform), owned by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR) and designed in the 1960s. In the mid 20th century, Francisco Artigas was one of the best known architects in Mexico. 2 Late in life, several of these architects agreed to be interviewed about their early works, enabling numerous critical studies, retrospective exhibitions, and monographs to take shape. much more than an architecture competition for students. In designing this new approach to concrete construction, Kikutake’s principal collaborator was Gengo Matsui (1920–1996), professor of civil engineering at Waseda University and a key motivator of structural innovation among three generations of Japanese architects. The roof of the Administration Building consists of a pair of parallel concrete ridge beams supporting a series of precast roof slabs between them. Yet this very conceit, with the passage of time, appears to have left the building in a precarious state. Japanese architect Kiyonori Kikutake’s Sky House (1958) remains an exemplary project that defines the Metabolist agenda but, more significantly, underscores the notion that a single-family dwelling can be ideologically recursive and strategic. While receiving the architect’s utmost attention to creating utility and poetry, building projects were also seen as opportunities to experiment with new construction systems; their scales did not always require or even match the technology employed. Yet even in a nominally timeless site such as Izumo, no work of architecture can stop the clock or escape taking on new readings over time. Kikutake Kiyonori imaginierte eine mechanisierte und automatisierte Industrieproduktion, bei der das angelieferte Erdöl zu synthetischen Fasern, chemischem Dünger und Ethylen-Produkten verarbeitet werden sollte. Pasadena Heights project page, building & design pages. Last year the museum’s architect, Kiyonori Kikutake, marked his 80th birthday by opening up another one of his projects, his own house, to a selected group of friends and visitors. 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